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Finally, in 1453, one of Europe's greatest cities fell to the Turks. Among the British born in India were the immensely influential writers Rudyard Kipling (1865) and George Orwell (1903). The international organization the United Nations was created. These convicts were often petty 'criminals', and represented the population spill-over of Britain's Industrial Revolution, as a result of the rapid urbanisation and dire crowding of British cities. By May of that year, American, British, Polish and troops from other countries had defeated and occupied Iraq. By the late 19th century, the world was dominated by a few great powers, including Great Britain, the United States, and Germany. The powerful Kingdom of Sardinia (also called Savoy or Piedmont) formed an alliance with France and went to war with Austria in that year. Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity. In Poland the Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989 elections in Poland where anti-communist candidates won a striking victory sparked off a succession of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe known as the Revolutions of 1989. The Gothic architecture style was popular during the time, with buildings such as Westminster Abbey remodelled in that style. Another great monarch was Philip II (1556–1598), whose reign was marked by several Reformation conflicts, like the loss of the Netherlands and the Spanish Armada. It imagines western culture … The years following Britain's victory in the Napoleonic Wars were a period of expansion for the United Kingdom and its former American colonies, which now made up the United States. At first Spain and its allies seemed ready to try to reconquer the colonies, but the U.S. and Britain opposed this, and the reconquest never took place. The Western Allies were then able to liberate the rest of France and move towards Germany. Examples of this occurred in Spain, Italy, and Austria. Two problems faced by Britain in this period were the resentment of British rule in Ireland and Britain's falling behind Germany and the United States in industrial production. Led by their prime minister, the defiant Winston Churchill, the British refused to give up and launched air attacks on Germany. McNeill took a broad approach organized around the interactions of peoples across the globe. By the 1930s, Japan's government was under the control of militarists who wanted to establish an empire in the Asia-Pacific region. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 The idea is that these cultures, while diverse, share foundational underpinnings from two primary sources, Greco-Roman intellectual life and Judeo-Christian religion. Chapter Summary. The movement was led by the Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Vietnamese Communists. . The colonists greatly resented these taxes and protested the fact they could be taxed by Britain but had no representation in the government. From 1943 on, the Allies gained the upper hand. Several European nations stood steadfastly against revolution and democracy, including Austria and Russia. Lincoln countered that secession was illegal and raised an army to crush the rebel government, thus the advent of the American Civil War (1861–65). Adam Smith developed and published The Wealth of Nations, the first work in modern economics. Course Summary History 101: Western Civilization I has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2,000 colleges … While the concept of Western civilization may be useful in some ways, it is also problematic in its tendency to ignore contributions from non-European peoples. Either in an online discussion board or in an in-person with your student, answer and discuss the following question: Is it possible to define Western Civilization by what it is not? From 1100, he wrote: "every branch of life – action, philosophy, organisation, technology [experienced an] extraordinary outpouring of energy, an intensification of existence". Presidents from this period were Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. In the mid-19th century, Ireland suffered a devastating famine, which killed 10% of the population and led to massive emigration: see Irish diaspora. Among the greatest Romantic artists were Eugène Delacroix, Francisco Goya, Karl Bryullov, J.M.W. Services. As the French society was gained by the same Enlightenment ideals that led to the American revolution, in which many Frenchmen, such as Lafayette, took part; representatives of the Third Estate, joined by some representatives of the lower clergy, created the National Assembly, which, unlike the Estates General, provided the common people of France with a voice proportionate to their numbers. By the late 19th century, Germany had surpassed Britain to become the world's greatest industrial power. The 19th and early 20th centuries saw important contributions to the process of modernisation of Western art and Literature and the continuing evolution in the role of religion in Western societies. These Western powers were aided not only by superior technology like gunpowder, but also by Old World diseases which they inadvertently brought with them, and which wiped out large segments of the Amerindian population. This very strong metal, combined with the invention of elevators, allowed people to construct very tall buildings, called skyscrapers. Rock and roll music and the spread of technological innovations such as television dramatically altered the cultural landscape of western civilisation. Poland, whose statehood had just been re-established by the Treaty of Versailles following the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century achieved an unexpected and decisive victory at the Battle of Warsaw. The European Union has become increasingly powerful, taking on roles traditionally reserved for the nation-state. Entire cities lay in ruins and economies were in shambles. Spain conquered the Philippines and converted the inhabitants to Catholicism. Turner, John Constable, Caspar David Friedrich, Ivan Aivazovsky, Thomas Cole, and William Blake. Advances in medicine and understanding of the human anatomy also increased in this time. It involved several powers fighting on several continents. The government controlled every aspect of its citizens' lives, from maintaining loyalty to the Communist Party to persecuting religion. The Industrial Revolution which began in Britain in the 18th century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. His reign was one of the most opulent in European history. In the Midwestern United States, a severe drought destroyed many farmers' livelihoods. Parliament declared a kingless Commonwealth but soon appointed the anti-absolutist leader and staunch Puritan Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. Since workers relied only on their small wages for sustenance, entire families were forced to work, including children. The Nazis were similar to Mussolini's Fascists but held many views of their own.  This idea resulted in racism in the West, as people began feeling all blacks were inferior to whites, regardless of their religion. Anyone can earn Volume 1: from the origins of civilization in Mesopotamia c. 8,000 BCE through the early Middle Ages in Europe c. 1,000 CE. Chapter Summary. As the Church grew more powerful and wealthy, many sought reform. So, what are these foundations? By the start of the second millennium AD, the West had become divided linguistically into three major groups. In 1853 an American expedition opened up Japan to trade with first the U.S., and then the rest of the world. In 1910 Britain united its South African colonies with the former Boer republics and established the Union of South Africa, a dominion of the British Empire. 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